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How to solve the indoor use of 5G?

5G is now mainly indoors. Some experts predict that 85% of 5G construction sites are indoors. The quality of indoor coverage is directly related to the experience of 5G indoor applications. Let us pay attention to how 5G should be used indoors.

Let’s start with the main residential building.

Is it feasible to deploy base stations on the facade of the house? Many people think so

So is there a way to save money?

Is it all right to build a macro base station outdoors to cover the signal in a searchlight style?

In this way, the outdoor station can penetrate into the indoor signal, as the name implies, the outdoor base station is used to take into account the indoor coverage. In the early days of 5G network construction, this is the fastest way, and operators are most inclined to this way!

Can this method be used directly for indoor coverage of high-rise buildings?

The passive antenna of the 4G macro station has only one beam, the horizontal lobe is very wide, the vertical lobe is relatively narrow, by adjusting a good angle, but this has a disadvantage, that is, the high-level signal is better, but the low-level floor is worse.

5G introduces Massive MIMO technology, and macro stations have beamforming capabilities. Since operators generally use horizontal 7/8 beam configurations, although the level is relatively good, many high-rise buildings still cannot meet full coverage. Coupled with the external structure of the wall, the indoor effect cannot be guaranteed. In the 5G era, there are higher requirements for capacity, delay, and reliability, and the method of direct outdoor coverage is even more unsatisfactory.

So is the outdoor base station completely powerless for high-rise buildings?

The outdoor coverage method mentioned above is definitely not feasible, so Dongfang Longda Communications launched a SSB 1+X solution to strengthen the coverage of the macro station to the indoor. For the introduction of the SSB 1+X solution, please refer to:

In addition, do we have other coverage methods for large buildings?

There are still many people who are thinking, we will guide the signal from the outside through the cable, so that we can go inside?

Just like the signal amplifier on the market, the signal is received from the outside and transmitted from the inside, isn’t the signal just coming in?

This is actually the idea of DAS (Distributed Antenna System). Passive devices such as couplers, power splitters, combiners and other passive devices are used to split and transmit the RRU’s radio frequency signals. Each antenna has a signal. , Distribute the transmitted signal evenly, so as to complete the indoor distribution.

In fact, the DAS method has been widely used in 2G/3G and is already a very mature technology. However, in the 5G era, the large-scale construction of 5G appears to be a little stretched. Many people think that this is an antenna problem. Adding an antenna is better for the signal, so add more antennas to cover it!

I tell you this kind of transformation, the cost will increase a lot!

So is there a way to increase the network capacity without or with few changes to the existing DAS system? Let’s think about it in another way, the multi-channel joint transceiver solution launched by Oriental Longda Communication immediately.

Not on paper, let’s talk together!

Just like office computers, we don’t dislike the small ones and don’t replace them with larger ones. Because of the high cost, many people will choose dual screens.

Similar to this, the multi-channel joint transceiver solution uses different channels of one or more RRUs to combine multiple transceiver nodes of the DAS distributed system to build a more dimensional multi-antenna transceiver system to achieve more upstream/downstream MIMO Transmission, increase system capacity.

In short, the previous antennas sent and received data to users independently one by one, so we set up their mobile phones to send and receive data together.

This multi-channel joint transceiver solution does not need to change the traditional DAS system network architecture, avoids the problems of large workload, high cost, and difficulty in site resource coordination for DAS system transformation. The performance of the traditional DAS network can be quickly achieved only through the deployment of the software version. Upgrade so that there is no requirement for the terminal.

With the support of the multi-channel joint transceiver solution for the DAS system, can it perfectly solve all 5G indoor coverage problems?

There is another problem. The passive components of the 4G DAS network can only support the sub 3G frequency band, and they are helpless in the face of 5G high frequency networks (sub 6G, etc.).

Is there any other way to improve indoor coverage?

Careful buildings certainly don’t invest too much, but in some large-scale scenes such as transportation hubs, stadiums, skyscrapers, etc., a better rate of return cannot be obtained. From the previous discussion, we can deploy large buildings in this way. This is the active digital room sub-solution.

The active digital room adopts a three-level architecture of baseband unit (BBU)-convergence unit (PBridge)-radio frequency unit (Pico RRU). The difference from an outdoor macro station is that there are more aggregation units, and the RRU becomes a Pico RRU. The Pico RRU is smaller and more flexible and can be deployed everywhere, so the active room sub-solution has become a large-capacity, the best way is to choose this.

Active digital room sub-solutions have been widely used in the 4G era, and there are still three problems that need to be resolved in 5G.

Reduce Costs

Cost is the first thing to consider. If the individual cost is relatively high, operators are reluctant to invest.

Pico RRU is the main cost component of the active digital room. The more Pico RRU frequency bands and channels, the higher the cost. So the key is to reduce the cost of Pico RRU in the network. Each coverage has different problems, which leads to large differences in the frequency band and channel requirements of Pico RRU. If a single product configuration is adopted, it is obviously not able to meet the needs of indoor coverage. Therefore, specific problems can be analyzed in detail and different solutions can be made according to different solutions. investment.

In addition to this, another idea is to build and share together. Operators can share the solution, which can not only share the cost of 5G network construction, reduce resource waste, but also increase spectrum bandwidth and improve user experience.

Efficient Operation and Maintenance

Due to the Pico RRU’s high integration, high transmit power, and large number of active digital room sub-solutions, operation and maintenance and equipment are a difficult point. In the 5G era, active digital room division solves this problem through visual management and intelligent energy saving.

Visual management is achieved through the building model, which intuitively displays Pico RRU deployment location information by floor, and at the same time generates performance data with Pico RRU units as the granularity, solving this problem sharply.

Intelligent energy saving is to use AI and big data technology to maximize the energy saving effect and achieve the best balance between energy consumption and performance on the basis of ensuring network KPIs.

Expand New Business

Operators hope that the active digital room subsystem can tap the network potential, open up network capabilities, and expand new services. What are the countermeasures for this active digital room subsystem? This must be combined with MEC mobile edge computing capabilities to further optimize business experience, enable value-added services, open network capabilities, and provide customized services.

Solving these three problems, the active digital room division solution is even more powerful, and it will shine in the 5G era.

Finally, we review, and now we are analyzing the main three types: outdoor base station coverage indoor, traditional passive DAS and active digital indoor distribution. For 5G, the three solutions have different advantages and disadvantages. On the basis of traditional construction methods, Oriental Longda Communications optimizes and innovates, solves different problems one by one, and brings more efficient, economical, and high-quality indoor coverage. , Help 5G indoor application experience more beautiful.

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Post time: 12-23-2021

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